Red List Status -

Endangered (EN) , assessed in 08/09/2017

Protected species -

in Northern Province

Oxera rugosa is a small monocaulous tree endemic to New Caledonia, where it is restricted to the southwest of Grande Terre. It is found in dense humid forest on ultramafic substrate from 40 to 600 m asl. Known from four locations, its extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) are estimated to be 44 km² and 20 km², respectively. Main threats include ongoing mining activities, bushfires and invasive species, such as rusa deer (Rusa timorensis russa) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Population size is unknown. O. rugosa is therefore listed as Endangered (EN) under criteria B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v).

Geographical area

O. rugosa is endemic to New Caledonia , where it is restricted to the south west of Grande Terre.


Total population size is unknown. Field surveys suggest small populations with no regeneration observed.


O. rugosa occurs in dense humid forest on ultramafic substrate from 40 to 600 m asl.


Main threats include ongoing mining activities, bushfires, and invasive species, such as Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa), that contribute to habitat degradation and prevent regeneration.


This species is not protected by any legislation in New Caledonia but it occurs in one protected area: Vallée de la Thy. This species is cultivated at the IAC (Institut Agronomique de Nouvelle-Calédonie) nursery of Saint-Louis with only a few number of individuals. Therefore more ex situ and in situ emergency conservation actions (monitor known populations and to preserve a viable one in delimited sites, where invasive species are under control) should be needed to better protect this species. It is also recommended to inform the local authority responsible for the coordination of the firefighting effort about the presence of the species in the concerned areas.


Mabberley DJ, de Kok RPJ. 2004. Labiatae. In: Morat P,ed. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendance.

Morat, P.; Jaffré, T.; Tronchet, F.; Munzinger, J.; Pillon, Y.; Veillon, J.-M. and Chalopin, M. 2012. Le référentiel taxonomique Florical et les caractéristiques de la flore vasculaire indigène de la Nouvelle-Calédonie [The taxonomic database « FLORICAL » and characteristics of the indigenous flora of New Caledonia]. Adansonia sér 3(34) , p.177-219. 2016. Faune et Flore de Nouvelle-Calédonie.

Gâteble G. 2016. Flore ornementale de Nouvelle-Calédonie.

Barrabé L, Karnadi-Abdelkader,G, Ounemoa,J,de Kok RPJ., Robert N, Gâteble,G. 2015. Recircumscription of Oxera (Lamiaceae: Ajugoideae) ta include Faradaya based on molecular and anatomical data. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society(179) , p.693-711.


Assessor(s): Gâteblé, G., Barrabé, L., Fleurot, D., Amice, R., Cazé, H., Bruy, D., Hequet, V., Vandrot, H., Butin, J., Mandaoué, L., Haverkamp, C., Dumontet, V., Laudereau, C.

Reviewer(s): Meyer, S.

Facilitator(s): Warimavute, G., Tanguy, V.

Geographical distribution