Red List Status -

Endangered (EN) , assessed in 08/09/2017

Protected species -

in Northern Province

Oxera rugosa is a small monocaulous tree endemic to New Caledonia, where it is restricted to the southwest of Grande Terre. It is found in dense humid forest on ultramafic substrate from 40 to 600 m asl. Known from four locations, its extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) are estimated to be 44 km² and 20 km², respectively. Main threats include ongoing mining activities, bushfires and invasive species, such as rusa deer (Rusa timorensis russa) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Population size is unknown. O. rugosa is therefore listed as Endangered (EN) under criteria B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v).

Geographical area

O. rugosa is endemic to New Caledonia , where it is restricted to the south west of Grande Terre.


Total population size is unknown. Field surveys suggest small populations with no regeneration observed.


O. rugosa occurs in dense humid forest on ultramafic substrate from 40 to 600 m asl.


Main threats include ongoing mining activities, bushfires, and invasive species, such as Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis) and feral pigs (Sus scrofa), that contribute to habitat degradation and prevent regeneration.


This species is not protected by any legislation in New Caledonia, and it occurs in one protected area: Vallée de la Thy. This species would benefit from in situ emergency conservation actions. It is proposed to monitor known populations and to preserve a viable population on delimited perimeters, where invasive species are under control. It is also recommended to inform the local authority responsible for the coordination of the firefighting effort about the presence of the species in the concerned areas. Knowledge improvement on this species (multiplication tests) would also be needed for ex situ conservation.


Gâteble G. 2016. Flore ornementale de Nouvelle-Calédonie. 2016. Faune et Flore de Nouvelle-Calédonie.

Barrabé L, Karnadi-Abdelkader,G, Ounemoa,J,de Kok RPJ., Robert N, Gâteble,G. 2015. Recircumscription of Oxera (Lamiaceae: Ajugoideae) ta include Faradaya based on molecular and anatomical data. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society(179) , p.693-711.

Morat, P.; Jaffré, T.; Tronchet, F.; Munzinger, J.; Pillon, Y.; Veillon, J.-M. and Chalopin, M. 2012. The taxonomic database « FLORICAL » and characteristics of the indigenous flora of New Caledonia. Adansonia(334) , p.177-219.

Mabberley DJ, de Kok RPJ. 2004. Labiatae. In: Morat P,ed. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendance.


Assessor(s): Gâteblé, G., Barrabé, L., Fleurot, D., Amice, R., Cazé, H., Bruy, D., Hequet, V., Vandrot, H., Butin, J., Mandaoué, L., Haverkamp, C., Dumontet, V., Laudereau, C.

Reviewer(s): Meyer, S.

Facilitator(s): Tanguy, V., Warimavute, G.

Geographical distribution